Russian Revolution in February led to Czar Nicholas II, the head of Russian empire since 1894 to relent by the Leningrad rebels and anxious provisional government was established in his position. Nicholas II was overturned because of having no confidence in the face of Russian Army after having ruled from 1 November 1894 to 17 July 1918. Czar and his family were reserved in different places before imprisoned in Yekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains. Nicholas succeeded his father Tsar Alexander III at younger age lacking enough needed experience to lead Russia, in the same year, he married his wife Princess Alexander of Hesse- Darmstadt of Germany, and they were blessed with five children; one son and four daughters.
The downfall of Czar revolves around ‘Bloody Sunday’ where workers called for a peaceful demonstration to protest against low wages and poor job conditions. In realizing this, Nicholas commanded his soldiers to shoot to kill all the rioters earning that day “Bloody Sunday” and this created the necessity to overturn Czar. Demonstration day happened in 1905, but Nicholas II was still in power up to March 1917 although Russian calendar considers the month as February where he was dethroned due to his failure to exercise sovereign authority as required by the insurgents. The Peningrads wanted him to call to an end World War I against Germany because his crown army was undergoing series of injuries and was incapable of facing and defeating Germany military, however, he disowned the people’s recommendations and insisted on keeping Russia in the war.
Besides, the Russian tenants wanted him to come up with land reform rules to protect the lower social class from becoming squatters due to inequality from both the middle and upper social classes. An established parliament ‘Duma’ gave more opportunities to the middle socio-economic class and upper class, which consisted of financially stable or professors and degree holders resulting in continuous oppression from authority. The vicious act of Czar called for the opposition to correct the government decisions, which were undermining the Russian people including land grabbing by force but instead, ruling authority refused to heed the cry of insurgents bringing the need to disown and push for the downfall of governing coalition.
The people living in St Petersburg city and other cities wanted him to solve the problems of food shortages and manufacturing of goods to stabilize Russian economy by strengthening the agricultural sector to increase food production that can sustain the lives of citizens but instead, authority banked on imported food from other countries. The practice of importing food became the business of the sovereign power though it was insufficient as well as highly costing to the taxpayers. Acquisition of finished products from foreign nations was also active whereas they have put stronger implementations to advance technology to manufacture their own materials. Czar was, therefore, unable to amass support of Russians including his army.
The ruler’s political belief relied on the strong commitment to his pessimistic assumptions and religious opinions calling for the upcoming of Bolshevik revolution since he was now attending to maintaining and extending the Royal Tsar’s power reign being the last in that family and authority could be taken away if he would have stepped down. The self-centered leader then lost confidence in the face of army soldiers because since he believed in himself than any other piece of advice from other sectors of the empire forcing for his abduction and sentenced to detention by the forces of the provisional government with the intention that he would be banished from Great Britain.
Finally, the persistent defeat of Russian army due to weaker weapons and inferiority because the opponents; Japan and Germany had experience in wars both on land, sea or air making them have the upper hand in winning the battles. Czar at his capacity wanted to expand his colony to Manchuria past Japan border and conquer that region which ignited the war with their neighbor country in 1904 where Russia suffered defeat. On the other hand, Czar’s army lost to Germany during World War 1 raising the alarm for the resignation of the empire ruler.
The changes that occurred in Russia to end monarchical era
Economic and social changes
Peasants outranging number raised an alarm shifting more attention to them since there was an endless migration to and from industrial, urban and rural areas. The reasons for movement were; congestion within the houses, small salaries, brutality, poor working conditions and long hours of work leading to steady injuries, death from filthy environments lower economic income. In this view, recommendations to adopt new skills motivated employees and improved their performance since they were exposed to new social and political classes. The primary transformation here was to ensure workers interests were given more priority by ensuring they get equal pay according to what one performs and the quality output. In 1914, many factories had been constructed to increase job opportunities for Russians from 40% to 68% thereby ameliorating their living standards and developing economy at large.
Most parts of the nation had apparent reasons to disagree with autocracy since Nicholas II was traditionalist; people were forced to become aggressive to him calling for supreme power resolutions although religious leaders encouraged them to persevere even though Emperor had his political gain. With a strong belief that his power had bestowed upon Divine Right, Czar surmised that Russian citizens dedicated to his ruling with great loyalty making him disown any reform. With persistent burdensome authority, Russian graduates called for social democracy to eliminate brutality and disunity within the country calling for the prestigious restoration of national peace and war against the ancient enemy for the collection of all ethnic groups.
World War I
The outbreak of World War 1 was primarily meant to end different demonstrations by giving all their attentions together to the external foe, which were the outside nations, but this unity did not last for long because citizens failed to get recognitions from the government. To add, 1914 Battle of Tannenberg more than 30,000 Russian soldiers were killed while several others injured as others arrested making Nicholas II to lose the battle after taking the close monitor to the military leaving his wife to rule the empire for some time when most cases of malpractice and incapability in the imperial government arose. In 1915, it became worse when superior, well-trained German troops changed their focus to eastern front forcing Russians out of Galicia including Russian Poland during Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive campaign. The defeat saw soldiers losing confident in the ruling coalition because they are treated as raw materials and increased food shortages forcing them to buy food. Czar was blamed for all these disasters growing discontention where parliament shed little concern and issued a warning to him in 1916 with fear that there might be major riots, which would destabilize unity.
The Russian revolution began in 1917 with destabilized Tsarist autocracy which caused a rise of Soviet Union after the downfall of Russian Emperor Nicholas II thereby bringing the provisional government in the first changes in February 1917 (March according to Gregorian calendar used in Russia). February changes aimed at getting the peoples’ interests especially around capital city St. Petersburg. Imperial Parliament Duma, possessed power and army commander decided not to interfere with new coalition. Now, ‘soviets’ who were the group of workers extended in the whole country from their central location which the capital city, therefore, gaining more support and power as Duma’s government falls. In the end, Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin clinched to power where majority sided with him and liked his governing policies including peace, equity in land ratio and availability of enough food.
Dual power revolution (between February and October)
The smooth running of provisional government got undermined by both workers and soldiers union leaders who acted as workers’ deputies and could connect with representatives of the socialist parties in Tauride Palace. Due to increased protests, Alexander Kerensky a famous young lawyer and a member of Socialist Revolutionary Party (SRP) accepted to work with the cabinet becoming more important in the government. As a minister for war and later prime minister, he encouraged freedom of speech, freed most political prisoners and emphasized on war by organizing a separate group of soldiers consisting of workers and peasants, but he still faced enormous challenges from other policy fronts.
In October 1917, the second revolution occurred when Bolshevik has sworn to power giving Lenin supreme authority in the country and burning all other political parties. In the new governance, lands were under state control grabbing Tsar and Russian church hectares of land, which was used to locate factories and workers, were given 8 working hours. As progression, Lenin immediately withdrew Russia from World War 1 and engaged in treaty with Germany in 1918 where Russia lost part of its territory, seeing Ukraine, Georgia and Finland getting independence and Poland together with Baltic becoming part of Germany and later on, Bolsheviks movement modified their name to Communist Party.
Civil war revolution
Immediately after First World War, there was a fresh fight between Communists and Anti-Communists forces who proposed the comeback of Tsar. The rebelling troops named themselves “White Russians” and they got support from other nations including France, Great Britain, and U.S.A. Within three years, Communist forces “Red Army” defeated their opponents bringing to an end earlier revolution. Nicholas II and his family members were sent to death in 1918 paving way for Russia to become the Soviet Union in 1922.
Execution of the imperial family
On July 16, 1918, Bolsheviks prosecuted Tsar and his family a year later after clinching to power. Between April and May of that same year, Romanovs were transferred from Tsarskoe Selo to Yekaterinburg base of Bolshevik's military due to hindrance from white movement front who were loyal to Nicholas II where Lenin ordered for their shot as proclaimed by his bodyguard.
The Great Russian Revolution and the world (1917-1923)
To achieve socialism, Leon Trotsky proposed they have to engage other countries for support and success as opposed by Joseph Stalin, who believed intermediate phase of social development between capitalism and communism is possible within a single nation. Later on, disarray came up when Stalin joined Lenin’s statement that “socialism’s success needs the workers from other bordering countries for complete succession ” for the sole reason of vanquishing competitors in the same party for Lenin’s position after his demise in 1914.
Russian chronological of events had influences from political divide leading to the historiography of transformations into three main camps; Soviet- Marxist opinions, Western – Totalitarian views and Revisionist range of vision thereby causing anti-government terrorist movement and government reaction against them. In January 1905, political upheaval heated following Bloody Sunday in the then capital city Saint Petersburg trailed by series of defeats from the opponents which calls for overthrowing of Czar Nicholas before the provisional government comes in. Due to persistent protests by workers and soldiers, first, ever coalition government formed when representatives, socialists, and Soviet leaders accepted to work with authority. Finally, changes marked an end when Congress approved the transfer of supreme power into his own and local to the hands of Soviet employees, soldiers and deputy peasants ensuring Decree on Peace and land and approbated the formation of Bolshevik government.